Texas Instruments Written test Paper

Texas Instruments Written test Paper
Texas Instruments Placement Paper technical questions – C, C++ language coding, programming questions with programs, output and detailed explanation
1)How do I write code to make an object work like a 2-D array?
Ans: Take a look at the following program.
#include
class emp
{
public :
int a[3][3] ;
emp( )
{
int c = 1 ;
for ( int i = 0 ; i <= 2 ; i++ )
{
for ( int j = 0 ; j <= 2 ; j++ )
{
a[i][j] = c ;
c++ ;
}
}
}
int* operator[] ( int i )
{
return a[i] ;
}
} ;
void main( )
{
emp e ;
cout << e[0][1] ;
}
The class emp has an overloaded operator [ ] function. It takes one argument an integer representing an array index and returns an int pointer. The statement cout << e[0][1] ; would get converted into a call to the overloaded [ ] function as e.operator[ ] ( 0 ). 0 would get collected in i. The function would return a[i] that represents the base address of the zeroeth row. Next the statement would get expanded as base address of zeroeth row[1] that can be further expanded as *( base address + 1 ). This gives us a value in zeroth row and first column.

What are formatting flags in ios class?
Ans: The ios class contains formatting flags that help users to format the stream data. Formatting flags are a set of enum definitions. There are two types of formatting flags:
On/Off flags
Flags that work in-group
The On/Off flags are turned on using the setf( ) function and are turned off using the unsetf( ) function. To set the On/Off flags, the one argument setf( ) function is used. The flags working in groups are set through the two-argument setf( ) function. For example, to left justify a string we can set the flag as,
cout.setf ( ios::left ) ;
cout << “KICIT Nagpur” ;
To remove the left justification for subsequent output we can say,
cout.unsetf ( ios::left ) ;
The flags that can be set/unset include skipws, showbase, showpoint,
uppercase, showpos, unitbuf and stdio. The flags that work in a group can have only one of these flags set at a time.

What is the purpose of ios::basefield in the following statement?
cout.setf ( ios::hex, ios::basefield ) ;
Ans: This is an example of formatting flags that work in a group. There is a flag for each numbering system (base) like decimal, octal and hexadecimal. Collectively, these flags are referred to as basefield and are specified by ios::basefield flag. We can have only one of these flags on at a time. If we set the hex flag as setf ( ios::hex ) then we will set the hex bit but we won’t clear the dec bit resulting in undefined behavior. The solution is to call setf( ) as setf ( ios::hex, ios::basefield ). This call first clears all the bits and then sets the hex bit.

Can we get the value of ios format flags?
Ans: Yes! The ios::flags( ) member function gives the value format flags. This function takes no arguments and returns a long ( typedefed to fmtflags) that contains the current format flags.

Is there any function that can skip certain number of characters present in the input stream?
Ans: Yes! This can be done using cin::ignore( ) function. The prototype of this function is as shown below:
istream& ignore ( int n = 1, int d =EOF ) ;
Sometimes it happens that some extra characters are left in the input stream while taking the input such as, the ?\n? (Enter) character. This extra character is then passed to the next input and may pose problem.
 To get rid of such extra characters the cin::ignore( ) function is used. This is equivalent to fflush ( stdin ) used in C language. This function ignores the first n characters (if present) in the input stream, stops if delimiter d is encountered.

Write a program that implements a date class containing day, month and year as data members. Implement assignment operator and copy constructor in this class.
Ans: This is shown in following program:
#include
class date
{
private :
int day ;
int month ;
int year ;
public :
date ( int d = 0, int m = 0, int y = 0 )
{
day = d ;
month = m ;
year = y ;
}
// copy constructor
date ( date &d )
{
day = d.day ;
month = d.month ;
year = d.year ;
}
// an overloaded assignment operator
date operator = ( date d )
{
day = d.day ;
month = d.month ;
year = d.year ;
return d ;
}
void display( )
{
cout << day << “/” << month << “/” << year ;
}
} ;
void main( )
{
date d1 ( 25, 9, 1979 ) ;
date d2 = d1 ;
date d3 ;
d3 = d2 ;
d3.display( ) ;
}

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