String in C Language


  • C Strings are nothing but array of characters ended with null character (‘\0’).
  • This null character indicates the end of the string.
  • Strings are always enclosed by double quotes. Whereas, character is enclosed by single quotes in C.

Example for C Language string:

    • char string[20] = { ‘f’ , ’r’ , ‘e’ , ‘s’ , ‘h’ , ‘2’ , ‘r’ , ‘e’ , ‘f’ , ’r’ , ‘e’ , ‘s’ , ‘h’ , ‘\0’}; (or)
    • char string[20] = “fresh2refresh”; (or)
    • char string []    = “fresh2refresh”;
  • Difference between above declarations are, when we declare char as “string[20]“, 20 bytes of memory space is allocated for holding the string value.
  • When we declare char as “string[]“, memory space will be allocated as per the requirement during execution of the program.

Example program for C language string:

Output:

The string is : fresh2refresh.com

 String functions in c Language:

    • String.h header file supports all the string functions in C language. All the string functions are given below.
S.no
String functions
Description
1strcat ( ) Concatenates str2 at the end of str1.
2strncat ( ) appends a portion of string to another
3strcpy ( ) Copies str2 into str1
4strncpy ( ) copies given number of characters of one string to another
5strlen ( ) gives the length of str1.
6strcmp ( ) Returns 0 if str1 is same as str2. Returns <0 if strl < str2. Returns >0 if str1 > str2.
7strcmpi_(.) Same as strcmp() function. But, this function negotiates case.  “A” and “a” are treated as same.
8strchr ( ) Returns pointer to first occurrence of char in str1.
9strrchr ( ) last occurrence of given character in a string is found
10strstr ( ) Returns pointer to first occurrence of str2 in str1.
11strrstr ( ) Returns pointer to last occurrence of str2 in str1.
12strdup ( ) duplicates the string
13strlwr ( ) converts string to lowercase
14strupr ( ) converts string to uppercase
15strrev ( ) reverses the given string
16strset ( ) sets all character in a string to given character
17strnset ( ) It sets the portion of characters in a string to given character
18strtok ( ) tokenizing given string using delimiter
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