Datastructures Interview Questions

Datastructure interview questions

Question - 1) What Is Data Structure ?
Question - 2) What Is The Need For Data Structures In Programming ?
Question - 3) What Are The Different Data Types Which A Data Structure May Comprise Of ?
Question - 4) How Can Data Structures Be Classified ?
Question - 5) What Are Linear Data Structures ?
Question - 6) What Are Non Linear Data Structures ?
Question - 7) Differentiate Between Data Types & Data Structures ?
Question - 8) List Four Major Operations On Linear Data Structures ?
Question - 9) What Do You Mean By A Static Data Structure ?
Question - 10) What Is Dynamic Memory Allocation ?
Question - 11) What Is A Stack ?
Question - 12) What Is A Queue ?
Question - 13) What Are Linked Lists ?
Question - 14) What Are Trees ?
Question - 15) What Are Arrays ?
Question - 16) What Is A Circular Queue ?
Question - 17) What Do You Mean By The Terms ‘Overflow’ & ‘Underflow’ In Data Structures ?
Question - 18) What Is Meant By Dequeue ?
Question - 19) What Do You Mean By Garbage Collection In Data Structures ? What Role Does The AVAIL List Play In A Linked List ?
Question - 20) Differentiate Between A LIFO & FIFO List ?
Question - 21) What advantages and disadvantages, do you think does a circular singly linked list have over a non-circular singly linked list?
Question - 22) Give the similarities between queues and stacks ?
Question - 23) Differentiate between queues and stacks ?
Question - 24) To perform recursion, which data structure is generally used?
Question - 25) What do you mean by merging of data structures?
Question - 26) What are the different types of arrays ?
Question - 27) What do you mean by the base address of an array ?
Question - 28) Give the formula to calculate the address of any element in an array, when the length of the array along with its base address and size of the element are given ?
Question - 29) How is computer memory allotted for a two-dimensional array ?
Question - 30) What is the difference between an array and a stack housed in an array ?
Question - 31) List the basic operations which can be performed on data structures ?
Question - 32) How can you calculate the size of an array, given the upper and lower bounds of the array ?
Question - 33) Which are the two very common search techniques and what are their mechanisms ?
Question - 34) Describe how linear search is carried out ?
Question - 35) How does the binary search work ?
Question - 36) What are the differences between linear search and binary search ?
Question - 37) State the condition(s) under which binary search is applicable ?
Question - 38) What are the advantages of linked lists over arrays ?
Question - 39) What is sorting of an array ? Name a few types of sorting techniques ?
Question - 40) What is the mechanism of selection sort ?
Question - 41) What do you mean by bubble sort ?
Question - 42) What is insertion sort ?
Question - 43) Differentiate between the different types of linked lists ?
Question - 44) What do you mean by ‘pushing’ and ‘popping’ with regard to stacks ?
Question - 45) What are input restricted dequeues and output restricted dequeues ?
Question - 46) What do you mean by Polish string ?
Question - 47) What do you mean by an infix, postfix and prefix expression ?
Question - 48) What is the evaluation order according to which an infix expression is converted to postfix expression ?
Question - 49) Give the advantages of using post fix notations over infix notations ?
Question - 50) How can prefix notations be converted to infix form ?

Relocation of job interview

Relocation of job interview

So you have made it through the first few rounds of the interview process and you are now at the final stage of the interview. You are meeting the Hiring Manager and you know that everything is going great except you know that he/she is concerned about your willingness to relocate out-of-state for the position. How can you set his/her mind at ease concerning this alarming issue? Here, are our tips:

1. Write out a list of all your ties to the area. Before the interview, make a list of all the ties you have to the area or state. This list should include times you have visited or lived in the state. It should also include any family or friends that you have in the state.

2. Write out a list of all time you were away from home. Also, make a list of all the times you have been away from home. These can be to any location. Essentially, you are trying to make a record of times where you have been away from home for extended periods of time and were not homesick.

a. Examples could include going to a college out of state or going to Europe over the summer.

3. Research the city for more “useful” information. Research the city in which the job will be located. Make a list of the things that appeal to you about the city and how they would be a natural extension of you.

a. For example, if you do artwork on the side, talk in the interview about how great it would be to see “such and such” museum.

b. If you belong to any clubs or groups (avoid discussing any controversial groups) that have chapters in that area, state how
you look forward to joining those groups chapters.

c. Also, you can use the uniqueness of the city to your advantage as well. If you have never lived near the beach or the mountains, state how you are looking forward to a change from your own environment. If housing costs are cheaper, state this as well. Essentially, you are trying to show that a moving would be in your best interest.

4. Determine how your marital and family status will be benefit in the move. It is usually a no-no for the interviewer to ask you about these things. However, you can bring them up if you believe they will help your case. For instance, if you are single and have no children, you bring this point up to show that you can make this decision without consulting family. If you do have a family, you can state how your family supports your decision and would love to move there for such and such reasons.

5. Sell your commitment to the position. If this position would be an excellent learning opportunity or is with a very prestigious firm, state you would be more than willing to trade any small degree of homesickness because the benefits significantly outweigh this one minor issue.

6. Create a presentation for this interview question or concern. After you have compiled your research, you want to create a basic presentation that you will use when asked about this issue. By way of your preparation and your answer, you will be able to show you have thought about this issue and will give you a chance to state reasons why this will not be an issue and possibly even a benefit.

7. Take your cues from the interviewer. Try to gauge what specifically they are concerned about in your possible move and tailor your answer to that particular aspect. Often times, you can determine this by seeing how they respond to different parts of your answer to their question or what follow-up questions they ask you.

Implementing these steps will not guarantee the interviewer will be satisfied. However, it should go a long way towards planting seeds of thought that relocating will not be a significant issue. Your goal here is really to minimize any lingering doubts. If you are able to do effectively this, you just might be able to beat out a local candidate for the position.

Restaurant Server interview Questions

Restaurant Server interview Questions
• Why are you interested in this field?
“I’ve always loved working in the food industry. Food makes people happy, which makes me happy. Families reserve meal time and family time and it’s great to help them enjoy it as much as possible”
• Are you ok with working long hours on your feet?
“I’m used to it and I prefer it. I’m the kind of person that always need to be moving so it’s a great opportunity for me to be up and about”
• How many hours do you normally work?
Long hours are not a problem with me. I work to complete tasks and do not set a standard amount of time to be worked

Driver job interview Questions

Driver job interview Questions
Why do you want to be in the transportation career?

“I’ve always loved driving. It frees my mind and let’s me be at one with myself. Some people can’t handle long trips on the road but I prefer it. I like to be alone and this gives me the perfect opportunity”

• How far are you willing to drive?

“There are not limits. I like being on the road and the more miles I can get the better”

• How is your driving record?

Can’t help you on this one, you just need to be honest because they are going to check anyway!

• Are you a safe driver?

“Safety has always been my top goal. If you aren’t a safe driver then you are putting the lives of the innocent in jeopardy which is the last thing I would do”

Microsoft Telephonic interview sdet/sde

Microsoft Telephonic interview Questions sdet/sde

1. What is binary number’s 2′s compliment?

2. What is difference between process and thread and give examples?

3. What is variable scoping?

4. How many lines of code you have written in your current application that you are working on? What best practices you follow while developing softwares?

5. Why you want to apply for SDET position in Microsoft and asked what testing techniques you apply while development?

6. How you will contribute to Microsoft?

Cisco Certification interview questions

Cisco Certification interview questions
  1. Which level of examination are you taking? Why this particular level?
  2. Have you received training in CISCO skills prior to this? Was that training secured by your engineering institution?
  3. Are you aware of the various levels of CISCO certification? Can you explain the difference between an entry level certification and an associate certification?
  4. How would you define the requirements of a CCNA wireless certification process? Expand CCDA.
  5. Give some examples of retired certifications. What is the process for obtaining a new certification for those who hold retired certifications?
  6. Give a brief outline of your academic qualification till date? How would you regard it as relevant to the examination you are taking now? Has it prepared you sufficiently to face the challenges this certification examination involves?
  7. Which organization conducts the CISCO tests?
  8. What does basic network security encompass?
  9. Which individual stream would you like to specialize in as far as further CISCO certifications are concerned? Explain your choice briefly?
  10. Is a CCNA certification required for a CCDA certification examinee? What is CISCO’s preference regarding this? Why do you think this is the case? How does the situation change when one is applying for a CCNP certification?

Reasons to reject a resume

Reasons to reject a resume

A rejected resume can be frustrating. Doubts about yourself surface. The ego takes a hit. In addition, a reason is rarely given for the rejection. Without that, how can you possibly improve yours and give yourself a better shot at landing a job?

Rejected Resume

This initial 20 to 30 second review is where most resumes are either accepted or rejected. The employer is seeking a short, snappy resume that can be analyzed later.

Hiring managers have left hints, bread crumbs you can follow to help write a better resume and find that ideal job. Read Resume Writing for tips. By deciphering and understanding the major reasons why some resumes falls flat, a clearer picture comes into focus that can aide job seekers with writing outstanding resumes.

The reasons for a rejection are many and varied. Some are large, while others are small.

For example, giving a hiring manager a resume written in all capital letters is a big turnoff. Handing it over on pink, purple or green paper is a sure way to see a rejected resume. The use of standard business-quality white paper is a first step to getting yours read.

Remember, too, that a professionalism is not the equivalent of sending tweets to your friend. Capitalize the word “I” when speaking of yourself. This rule is unequivocal. Never break it.

Watch out for typos. If your desired salary is $55,000, don’t let an extra five sneak in. Asking for a $555,000 salary is a heart-stopper for most hiring managers.

Here’s a list of the main rejected resume reasons:

1. The resume is too long.

2. The grammar and spelling is poor.

3. The cover letter is deficient.

4. Failing to toot your horn.

Hiring managers may find lengthy resumes wearing on their nerves. These people are under pressure. They want relevant information about you, and they want it fast. Remember, yours may be one of hundreds stacked on the desk. The job that needs to be filled may be critical to the company, and a candidate must be found immediately. This is where the properly short and succinct resume will win out over other resumes.

A hiring manager will wade through the stack and cull the resumes. On one stack will go all the rejects. The resumes that will earn a more measured consideration go to another stack. That’s where you want yours to land.

Personnel managers estimate that each one gets a quick 20 to 30 second review. That quick look will determine whether yours gets tossed on the reject stack or is set aside for a second look.

This initial 20 to 30 second review is where most resumes are either accepted or rejected. That means you better make good use of your prospective employer’s time. The employer is seeking a short, snappy resume that can be analyzed later. So keep yours to two pages.

Lengthy paragraphs makes information tough to find. Keep the paragraphs short to avoid a rejected resume. Arrange it in an orderly fashion.

Next, sloppy spelling and poor grammar kills. This is a reason for a rejected resume that everyone understands. If your spelling is sloppy and your grammar is poor, an employer will surmise, unfairly or not, that your work may be sloppy and poor.

Learn how to use the comma. Be aware that “its” and “it’s” are two different words. Don’t misspell the name of the company. Don’t misspell your name. If you need to, pay a teacher’s aide to proofread finished copy.

A poor cover letter in your application can result in a rejected resume. This cover letter is the employer’s first impression of you. A good cover letter can be used to explain gaps in your employment history, such as relating that you attended school for a year to enhance your job skills.

Avoid boring clich├ęs like self-starter and team player. Bake some meat into that cover letter.

Each cover letter should be unique to the company you’re applying to. It must be enticing, short and give some piece of information that’s valuable to the employer in making a decision about you. Researching the company may help you know what they are looking for in a new employee.

Toot your horn. Failing to explain contributions you made to previous employers is another reason for a rejection. Employers are looking for employees who can positively contribute to their company.

If you developed a process that saved your previous employer money, highlight that in your resume.

You’re not bragging. You’re showing a prospective employer your high value. That’s exactly what an employer is looking for in you and your resume – value. Tooting your horn is the correct strategy to avoid a rejected resume.

Job change interview Questions

Job change interview Questions

Changing job can be an exciting and stressful experience. A career change can provide you with the opportunity to pursue a passion or to achieve new professional and personal goals. The most difficult part about changing careers is finding an employer willing to give you a chance. A job interview is your opportunity – and probably your only opportunity – to address concerns about your lack of experience and to demonstrate that you would add value to an organization. As a career changer, there are several questions about the interview and what to expect – and with little preparation, you can ace them all.

You can reasonably expect a potential employer to ask why you are interested in a career change. Employers do not ask this question just because they are curious – usually, they are trying to determine whether you are switching careers because you performed your old job poorly, had strained relationships with coworkers, or faced a variety of other issues that could affect your new career. Plus, employers want to understand whether you are serious about pursuing a new line of work.

The best strategy is to be honest. There are many perfectly legitimate reasons why people change careers. Perhaps you received more education – such as a certificate or degree – and are now qualified to pursue a new field. Your old career may have offered limited opportunities for professional growth. Maybe you have always had a passion for this new career, but were afraid to take the plunge. An employer is looking for sincerity and truthfulness when you answer this question.

You should also expect employers to ask about your lack of experience in this new field. Remember that just because you are pursuing a career change does not mean that you have no experience. Think about some skills you developed at your old job that would translate well to this new career. Certain skills like project leadership and time management are useful in many lines of work. You should acknowledge that you will have much to learn in your new career, but that you have a strong professional work ethic that will serve you well.

Most employers will ask you why you think you can be successful in your new career. With this question, employers are trying to discern whether you know anything at all about the new career you are pursuing. Employers will not believe that you are serious about a career change if you are unable to demonstrate at least a basic understanding of the work required in the new career. Before the interview, talk to friends or acquaintances who may hold jobs in the new field you are pursuing. If you do not know anyone who works in your chosen field, conduct some Internet research and participate in industry chat boards where other professionals may be happy to share their knowledge. Go to your interview prepared to discuss the new career as you understand it, and to provide some specific examples of how your skills will allow you to succeed. Researching the company will give you much needed information for the interview.

Finally, expect employers to ask how you deal with adversity. A career change can be frustrating, and you will wonder at times whether you have made the right decision. Employers want to know that you will not quit, act unprofessionally or become unmotivated during times of stress. Be prepared to discuss specific examples of times you faced and overcame challenges at your previous jobs. If you there were times when you helped other employees overcome adversity, make sure you share those stories as well. Most employers are looking for employees who have leadership skills and are committed to their coworkers’ success.

Remember that an interview should be a discussion and not just a question-and-answer session. If you are considering a career change, you likely have many questions about the new field you are entering and about the employer who may hire you. Come prepared with a list of your own interview questions to ask. Ask the employer what he or she expects from new hires, what kind of training or mentoring services may be available, and whether there are professional growth opportunities. Ask about any mandatory job skills that are required for the position. Get all the information you need in order to make an informed decision about whether you can achieve your professional goals with this employer.

Getting job techniques tips

Getting job techniques tips

In today’s job market, searching for a job can be frustrating and disheartening. With many job seekers experiencing lengthy periods of unemployment, it can be easy to become discouraged and give up hope of obtaining an interview, much less being hired. However, making use of a variety of job search techniques can tremendously improve the odds of getting call backs.

1. Direct Contact
When searching for a job, it is crucial to remember that not all positions are advertised. Companies may limit publicity surrounding an opening for a variety of reasons. Some companies may want to avoid an overwhelming response, while others simply may not have access to funding to advertise the position.

Begin this job search technique by compiling a list of local companies and organizations with which employment is desired. Once the list has been composed, begin making cold calls. When the receptionist asks how to direct your call, request human resources or the manager of the specific department sought.

There is a good probability that your call will be forwarded to the proper person. Still, many of the appropriate contacts within companies may not take unsolicited phone calls. Therefore, this job search technique requires thick skin and an aloof perspective of rejection. However, as with most worthwhile opportunities, contacting companies directly may have a great payoff. Searching for a job in this manner offers less competition for the position, since few, if any, applicants are aware of its availability.

2. Social Networking
Sites like Facebook, MySpace and Twitter may seem like a mere way to pass time and identify with family and friends. Yet more and more companies are utilizing these networks as a means of reaching customers and potential employees. Additionally, ecademy and LinkedIn cater specifically to employment related subject matter, with features including resume posts, job searches and even groups associated with specific industries and companies, these social network sites are a must for anyone seeking employment. To find a job by networking as a job search technique is one of the most widely regarded methods in today’s job market.

3. Online Job Sites
With the advent of the internet, online job sites like Monster, CareerBuilder and have become a mainstream staple in the world of job hunting. These sites and the tools subsequently offered by them, allow users to take advantage of countless benefits, including visibility to potential employers, resume help services and articles on everything from interview questions etiquette to what items to eliminate from your resume or cover letter.

4. Employment Agencies and Temp Services
Once considered the gold standard for job seekers, these services are still considered to be a valuable asset. Many companies still prefer the personal attention they receive from employment agencies versus online job posting sites. Additionally, since the screening process through an employment agency is more thorough, an applicant who uses these types of organizations as one of his job search techniques may be regarded as a higher quality, lower risk candidate.

5. Newspaper Classifieds
Though one of the oldest job search techniques, the newspaper classifieds are, even now a significant source of employment prospects. Classified ads are generally updated on Sundays to reach an optimal number of readers. Thus it is the best day to review the newspaper classifieds.

6. Government Agencies
With unemployment at its highest percentage in decades, many state and local governments have begun to offer provisions for job seekers. These offerings include free or low cost education, free access to technology such as computers and fax machines and volunteers to assist with everything from email setup to resume and cover letter writing. To obtain a complete list of resources available in your area, contact a Career One Stop near you.

7. Internships and Volunteer Work
While the primary goal of a job search is to gain a paycheck, applying for an internship or volunteer position may be a great way to launch a lucrative career path. These types of positions, while unpaid, offer experience and knowledge that can give you a considerable advantage over other candidates. Not to mention that job offers are often extended as a result of impressive efforts.

8. Friends and Family
No, this is not a reference to nepotism. However, many times friends or family members may be aware of a position that is currently open or expected to be available soon. Casually mentioning to them that you are searching may spark the memory that they know where you can look next.

9. Prior Associates
Most job seekers would not consider contacting former colleagues or clients on of their job search techniques. Yet, in many fields, networking is an essential part of daily operations. Accordingly, some associates often become good allies. Perhaps a former client or coworker has knowledge about jobs with an emerging or competing company. It never hurts to ask.

10. Digital Resume
Of course a CV or resume is a critical component to every job seeker’s repertoire. Still in today’s complex world, the supplement of a digital resume can help demonstrate your ability to skillfully employ technology in everyday life. Stating technical proficiency on an application or resume is a common practice for most job seekers, but few are able to exhibit this prior to being hired. Having a personal web address devoted to your resume writing can give you a major edge over your competition.

Memory techniques for Interview Questions

Memory techniques for Interview Questions

Interviewing for a job can tax your memory. You must remember the names of your interviewers, their titles and details about the company, plus all the specifics of your own work history. Even finding the interview location taxes your short-term memory. At the same time, being nervous causes many people to forget details. A great help to your interview preparation is to boost your memory before the interview so that you can arrive confident and fully focused.

1. When researching the company, break it down into several study sessions spaced apart rather than try to learn it in a single sitting. Never cram the night before unless this is a spur-of-the-moment interview.

2. Paying attention plays a big role in information recall, as you may recall from your experiences daydreaming during high school chemistry class. Study the company in a quiet environment that’s free of distractions.

3. Pay attention to what is said during the interview. Many candidates focus so intently on what they are going to say next that they miss key pieces of information that the interviewer is giving.

4. Repeating information helps you to retain it. If you are in a panel group interview, with more than one interviewer, there are sure to be names that are new to you. Say, “Nice to meet you, Mr. Hanson,” and you’ll remember his name later.

5. Organize pieces of information into groups. Educational psychologists call this process “chunking.” The reason it helps boost your memory is simple. It’s easier to remember five groups with five items in each one than it is to remember 25 separate items. Draw a big-picture organizational chart that includes divisions and subsidiaries of the company. Then plug in the people and departments that you would be working with if you had the job. Go through the same process with the company’s products and markets, organizing each one into categories.

6. Use mnemonic devices. Association and visualization are especially effective devices to boost your memory in situations in which there’s no time for complicated strategies. Simply associate something you’re trying to remember with something else, and then visualize it. For example, if an interviewer’s name is Jim Newberger, picture your college roommate Jim eating a new burger. If you can, associate a physical feature to remember the face as well. Perhaps Jim Newberger has a full head of black hair like your college roommate. Afterwards, jot down the name as soon as possible.

7. If you have a longer time to learn information, acronyms and acrostics work well. For example, if the division in which you’re interested makes coatings, adhesives, special polymers and inks, take the first letter of each word to form the acronym CASPI. You can even visualize a friendly ghost. An acrostic using the first letter of each word might be “Cats Always Smell Pretty Interesting.”

8. Try the loci technique to boost your memory. In this method, you imagine the things you are trying to remember as objects in a familiar place. Let’s say that you want to remember the company’s satellite offices in Troy, Lansing, Grand Rapids and Ann Arbor. You might picture Helen of Troy sitting on your living room sofa, a lance mounted on the wall of your dining room, grand rapids spilling from an overflowing kitchen sink and your cousin Ann sitting under an arbor in your back yard.

9. Keep all belongings related to the interview super-organized. This will free up your memory for more important tasks in the same way that cleaning up your computer’s hard drive frees up more memory. Rummaging through a disorganized briefcase to find a pen—or, worse, asking the interviewer for one—could kill your chances of landing the job. The interviewer will think, “If this candidate can’t even find a pen, what’s a business trip going to be like?”

Keep a few pens tucked inside your jacket pocket or in an outside pocket of your purse. Store relevant phone numbers on your computer and phone rather than on scraps of paper.

10. Practicing for the interview is one of the best ways to commit something to memory. If possible, do a practice drive to the place of the interview and use a GPS if you have one. Think of this as the equivalent of taking a practice test in school. If you get lost and arrive late, you can probably forget about getting the job even if your qualifications are top-notch.

11. Also, at least practice the 10 common interview questions and answers with someone else. Practice our list of top 10 interview trick questions and rehearse how you will handle them. Even if the interviewer surprises you with a different question, chances are that you’ve already rehearsed your response to a similar type of query.

Dotnet interview Questions

Dotnet interview Questions

1 What is .NET Framework?

Ans: The .NET Framework has two main components: the common language runtime and the .NET Framework class library. You can think of the runtime as an agent that manages code at execution time,providing core services such as memory management, thread management, andremoting, while also enforcing strict type safety and other forms of code accuracy that ensure security and robustness.The class library, is a comprehensive, object-oriented collection of reusable types that you can use to develop applications ranging from traditional command-line orgraphical user interface (GUI) applications to applications based on the latestinnovations provided by ASP.NET, such as Web Forms and XML Web services.

2 What are Name spaces?

Ans: The namespace keyword is used to declare a scope. This name space scope lets you organize code and gives you a way to create globally-unique types. Even if you do not explicitly declare one, a default namespace is created. This unnamed name space,sometimes called the global namespace, is present in every file. Any identifier in theglobal namespace is available for use in a named namespace. Namespaces implicitly have public access and this is not modifiable.

3 What is CLR?

Ans: The CLS is simply a specification that defines the rules to support language integrationin such a way that programs written in any language, yet can interoperate with one another, taking full advantage of inheritance, polymorphism, exceptions, and other features. These rules and the specification are documented in the ECMA proposed standard document, “Partition I Architecture”.

4 Is .NET a runtime service or a development platform?

Ans: It’s both and actually a lot more. Microsoft .NET includes a new way of delivering software and services to businesses and consumers. A part of Microsoft.NET is the .NET Frameworks. The .NET frameworks SDK consists of two parts: the .NET common language runtime and the .NET class library. In addition, the SDK also includes command-line compilers for C#, C++, JScript, and VB. You use these compilers to build applications and components. These components require the runtime to execute so this is a development platform.

5 What is MSIL, IL?

Ans: When compiling to managed code, the compiler translates your source code intoMicrosoft intermediate language (MSIL),which is a CPU-independent set of instructions that can be efficiently converted to native code. MSIL includes instructions for loading, storing, initializing, and calling methods on objects, as well as instructions for arithmetic and logical operations, control flow, direct memory access, exception handling, and other operations. Microsoft intermediate language (MSIL) is a language used as the output of a number of compilers and as the input to a just-in-time (JIT) compiler. The common language runtime includes a JIT compiler for converting MSIL to native code.

6 Can I write IL programs directly?

Ans: Assembly MyAssembly {}
.class MyApp {
.method static void Main() {
ldstr “Hello, IL!”
call void System.Console::WriteLine(class System.Object)

7 What is CTS?

Ans: The common type system defines how types are declared, used, and managed in theruntime, and is also an important part of the runtime’s support for cross-language integration.The common type system supports two general categories of types,eachofwhich isfurther divided into subcategories:
• Value types
Value types directly contain their data, and instances of value types are either allocated on the stack or allocated inline in a structure. Value types can be built-in (implemented by the runtime), user-defined, or enumerations.
• Reference types
Reference types store a reference to the value’s memory address, and are allocated on the heap. Reference types can be self-describing types, pointer types, or interface types. The type of a reference type can be determined from values of self-describing types. Self-describing types are further split into arrays and class types. The class types are user-defined classes, boxed value types, and delegates.

8 What is JIT (just in time)? how it works?

Ans: Before Microsoft intermediate language (MSIL) can be executed, it must beconverted by a .NET Framework just-in-time (JIT) compiler to native code, which is CPU-specific code that runs on the same computer architecture as the JIT compiler.

Rather than using time and memory to convert all the MSIL in a portable executable (PE) file to native code, it converts the MSIL as it is needed during execution and stores the resulting native code so that it is accessible for subsequent calls.The runtime supplies another mode of compilation called install-time code generation.The install-time code generation mode converts MSIL to native code just as the regular JIT compiler does, but it converts larger units of code at a time, storing the resulting native code for use when the assembly is subsequently loaded and executed.

As part of compiling MSIL to native code, code must pass a verification process unless an administrator has established a security policy that allows code to bypass verification. Verification examines MSIL and metadata to find out whether the code can be determined to be type safe, which means that it is known to access only the memory locations it is authorized to access.

9 What is strong name?

Ans: A name that consists of an assembly’s identity—its simple text name, version number,and culture information (if provided)—strengthened by a public key and a digital signature generated over the assembly.

10 What is portable executable (PE)?

Ans: The file format defining the structure that all executable files (EXE) and Dynamic LinkLibraries (DLL) must use to allow them to be loaded and executed by Windows. PE isderived from the Microsoft Common Object File Format (COFF). The EXE and DLL filescreated using the .NET Framework obey the PE/COFF formats and also add additionalheader and data sections to the files that are only used by the CLR. The specificationfor the PE/COFF file formats is available.

11How is .NET able to support multiple languages?

Ans:language should comply with the Common Language Runtime standard to become a.NET language. In .NET, code is compiled to Microsoft Intermediate Language (MSIL for short). This is called as Managed Code. This Managed code is run in .NET environment. So after compilation to this IL the language is not a barrier. A code can call or use a function written in another language.

12 Which name space is the base class for .net Class library?

Ans: system.object.

13 What is Event -Delegate? clear syntax for writing a event delegate?
Ans: The event keyword lets you specify a delegate that will be called upon the occurrence of some “event” in your code. The delegate can have one or more associated methods that will be called when your code indicates that the event has occurred. An event in one program can be made available to other programs that target the .NET Framework.

14 What are object pooling and connection pooling and difference? Where do 0we set the Min and Max Pool size for connection pooling?

Ans: Object pooling is a COM+ service that enables you to reduce the overhead of creating each object from scratch. When an object is activated, it is pulled from the pool. When the object is deactivated, it is placed back into the pool to await the next request. You can configure object pooling by applying the Object Pooling attribute to a class that derives from the System.EnterpriseServices.ServicedComponent class.

Object pooling lets you control the number of connections you use, as opposed to connection pooling, where you control the maximum number reached. Following are important differences between object pooling and connection pooling:• Creation. When using connection pooling, creation is on the same thread, so if there is nothing in the pool, a connection is created on your be half. With object pooling, the pool might decide to create a new object. However, if youhave already reached your maximum, it instead gives you the next available object. This is crucial behavior when it takes a long time to create an object.

15 How many languages .NET is supporting now?

Ans: When .NET was introduced it came with several languages. VB.NET, C#, COBOL and Perl, etc. The site DotNetLanguages.Net says 44 languages are supported.

16 How ASP .NET different from ASP?

Ans: Scripting is separated from the HTML, Code is compiled as a DLL, these DLLs can be executed on the server.

17 What is smart navigation?

Ans: The cursor position is maintained when the page gets refreshed due to the server side validation and the page gets refreshed.

18 What is view state?

Ans: The web is stateless. But in ASP.NET, the state of a page is maintained in the in the page itself automatically. How? The values are encrypted and saved in hidden controls. this is done automatically by the ASP.NET. This can be switched off / on for a single control.

19 How do you validate the controls in an ASP .NET page?

Ans: Using special validation controls that are meant for this. We have Range Validator, Email Validator.

20 Can the validation be done in the server side? Or this can be done only in the Client side?

Ans: Client side is done by default. Server side validation is also possible. We can switch off the client side and server side can be done.

Dotnet Database interview Questions

  1. Dotnet Database interview Questions
  2. What is the use of trace utility?
  3. What does Server.Map Path do?
  4. How do you create thread in .NET?
  5. How many objects are there in ASP?
  6. How to deploy an application?
  7. What are the types of cookies are there?
  8. How can you deploy an application?
  9. Explain how many objects are there in ASP?
  10. What is differences between ADO and DAO?
  11. How do we upgrade SQL Server 7.0 to 2000?
  12. Explain what are the types of cookies are there?
  13. Which DLL file is needed to be registered for ASP?
  14. What is the purpose of using COLLATE in a query?
  15. What are the advantages/disadvantages of view state?
  16. How do u call and execute a stored procedure in .NET?
  17. What is referential integrity and how can we achieve it?
  18. What is de-normalization? When do you do it and how?
  19. What is the maximum length of a varchar in SQL Server?
  20. Explain similarities and differences between Java and .NET?
  21. Explain the different types of replication? How are they used?
  22. What are the different types of replication? How are they used?
  23. Explain differences between framework 1.0 and framework 1.1?
  24. Explain what is the maximum length of a varchar in SQL Server?
  25. Explain at least two methods of response object other than Transfer?
  26. Explain at least three methods of response object other than Redirect?
  27. How do SQL Server 2000 and XML linked? What is SQL Server agent?
  28. What are good ADO.NET object(s) to replace the ADO Record set object?
  29. Explain differences between Servers. Transfer and server. Execute method?
  30. How do you separate business logic while creating an ASP.NET application?
  31. What is the .NET data type that allows the retrieval of data by a unique key?
  32. What is the STUFF function and how does it differ from the REPLACE function?
  33. Explain what are good ADO.NET object(s) to replace the ADO Record set object?
  34. Describe session handling in web form. How does it work and what are the limits?
  35. Explain how do we separate business logic while creating an ASP.NET application?
  36. Explain what is the .NET data type that allows the retrieval of data by a unique key?
  37. What are cursors? Name four type of cursors and when each one would be applied?
  38. What are the differences between User control and Web control and Custom control?
  39. Explain what is the STUFF function and how does it differ from the REPLACE function?
  40. Explain what are cursors? Name four type of cursors and when each one would be applied?
  41. How do you use DBCC statements to monitor various ASPects of a SQL Server installation?
  42. What is an execution plan? When would you use it? How would you view the execution plan?
  43. How does you handle this COM components developed in other programming languages in .NET?
  44. Name 3 ways you can get an accurate count of the number of records in a table Using query analyzer?
  45. How do you find the error, how can you know the number of rows affected by last SQL Statement?
  46. What is the difference between a Local temporary table and a Global temporary table? How is each one used?

SAP ABAP Interview Questions

SAP ABAP Interview Questions
  1. What tool is used to define flow logic?
  2. What is reject statement?
  3. What is the purpose of main window in SF n Script?
  4. What is the transaction code used for triggering sap script?
  5. What is result set of an inner join at database level?
  6. What is Extended IDOC and its purpose?
  7. How can I make a differentiation between dependent and independent data?
  8. Explain the role of CTUPARAMS structure in call transaction?
  9. How to handle events in classical reports?
  10. Why is cluster table called as cluster table?
  11. What are client dependent objects in ABAP/SAP?
  12. What is the difference between Maintenance view, Help view, Data Base View and Projection View?
  13. What is the main point while using control break in internal table?
  14. What is the difference between field group, extract dataset, and internal table?
  15. What is the role of ABAP In vat implementation?
  16. What is the significance of at line-selection event?
  17. What are the different types of data dictionary objects?
  18. How would you debug custom programs at runtime?
  19. What are the differences between SAP R/3 4.7 and ECC 6.0 from ABAP Point of view?
  20. How to create indexes in tables?
  21. What are the similarities between internal tables and structures?
  22. Which transaction code can I used to analyze the performance of ABAP program?
  23. How to add Text Modules in SMARTFORMS?
  24. What are the table controls in BDC?
  25. How many records a Read statement will retrieve?
  26. What is the command in subscript?
  27. How will you validate selection screen elements?
  28. What is actual procedure of session method of BDC?
  29. How to debug a smart form?
  30. How do you transport FORM from one server to another server?
  31. How many data classes and size categories are there?
  32. What is the difference between rfc and normal function module?
  33. What is Macro?
  34. Which table stores the online messages?
  35. What is the alternative to batch input session?
  36. What is meant by serialization?
  37. What is the difference between macro and subroutine?
  38. How do you get output from IDOC?
  39. What are the types of session method in session method?
  40. What are indexes?
  41. How to debug background jobs?
  42. What is a collect statement? How is it different from append?
  43. Where do we define LDB to a program?
  44. What is the difference between OpenSQL and Native Sql?
  45. How to deactivate the sort button from the alv output?
  46. What is the difference between invoice and proforma invoice?
  47. How to delete the field created using APPEND STRUCTURE (.APPEND)?
  48. How can we do performance tuning after coding?
  49. What is the process of dialog program from first to last?
  50. Explain about ranges?
  51. What is difference between parameter & select-option?
  52. What is the difference between Search help and Match code?
  53. What is the Difference between transparent tables and pooled tables?
  54. What is Deep structure and Flat structure?
  55. How do you see the authorization checks?
  56. What is the various print modes available with SAP scripts?
  57. What are the events triggered in report?
  58. What is the difference between ABAP memory and SAP memory?
  59. Can we create more than one main window in scripts?
  60. How to create standard text and how do u transfer it ?
  61. How to debug dialog box?
  62. What are the components of SAP scripts?
  63. What is Smart Forms?
  64. What is difference between dialog program and a report?
  65. What is the difference between file port and TRFC port?
  66. What is ITS? What are the merits of ITS?
  67. What happens if there is no CLOSE_GROUP in a BDC?
  68. How many windows can be maintained under one page? What is the difference between AT NEW and AT END OF events?
  69. What are the domains and data elements?
  70. How can I access SAP through internet?
  71. What are ALV reports?
  72. How to transport scripts?

ordinary variable and pointer in C

What is the difference between ordinary variable and pointer in C?
A An ordinary variable is like a container it can hold any value and we can change the value of ordinary variable at a time throughout the program .A pointer is a variable that stores the address of another Variable.

far and near pointers in c

What is "far" and "near" pointers in "c" ?
A:“Near" and "far" pointers are actually non-standard qualifiers that you'll find only on x86 systems. They reflect the odd segmentation architecture of Intel processors. In short, a near pointer is an offset only,which refers to an address in a known segment. A far pointer is a compound value, containing both a segment number and an offset into that segment. Segmentation still exists on Intel processors, but it is not used in any of the mainstream 32-bit operating systems developed for them, so you'll generally only find the "near" and "far" keywords in source code developed for Windows 3.x,MS-DOS, Xenix/80286, etc.

Difference %d and %*d

What is the difference between %d and %*d in c language?
A: %d give the original value of the variable and %*d give the address of the variable.
eg:-int a=10,b=20;
Result is 10 20 1775 1775 .Here 1775 is the starting address of the memory allocation for the integer.a and b having same address because of contagious memory allocation.

When typecast be used?

When should a type cast be used?
A:There are two situations in which to use a type cast. The first use is to change the type of an operand to an arithmetic operation so that the operation will be performed properly.
The second case is to cast pointer types to and from void * in order to interface with functions that expect or return void pointers. For example, the following line type casts the return value of the call to malloc() to be a pointer to a foo structure.
struct foo *p = (struct foo *) malloc(sizeof(struct foo));

Segment and offset addresses difference

Q:What are segment and offset addresses?
A: When paging technique is performed, the page will breaks into segments and its sequence is said to be segments and its width can be said as offset. In short,segment is a physical address and offset is logical address.

Nostradamus and 2012 predictions

I recently happened to see the History channel documentary on the "Last Book of
Nostradamus" and its striking 7 images. This was the latest to the 2012 doomsday documentary by the "H" channel. Anyways, I wanted to share what I thought about the scholor's thought on those images - not intending on demeaning or anything, just my thoughts. They seemed to be interested more on the wheel at the top and the book of life and the tree of life and did not talk much on the lower part of each image which seemed to be showing 2 different Zodiacs. In some cases, they did touch on the zodiacs, but in others, they interpreted them into something totally not related to Zodiac. The 7 images are here:

Anyways, I have read and seen so much of this doomsday thing in Mayan, Chinese, Egyptian, Christian, Hopi and many other predictions. Also I read on the scientific theories like Galactic alignment of sun in the milky way, pole reversal, solar maxima - yes indeed I was so jobless :) Having read all this, the curiosity bug bit me to see what hindu mythology has to say on this.
From what I have read so far from the internet, according to Gita and other sacred Hindu scriptures, few think that its going to be the end of Kali Yuga and the start of Satya Yuga. Since that seems so far fetched with no Kalki avatar yet, I was more convinced with the second school of thought. This thought says that God has promised a golden period of 5000 years within the kali yuga and 2012 will be the year when we'd usher into this golden period in kali yuga. And I think this better suits to India if not the world as India seems to be doing better economically and is being recognised better world wide these days. If economists predictions turn out true, India would economically over power China by 2012.
So just like all others who are confused reading so much about 2012, I am keeping my fingers crossed and hoping that the hindu mythology prediction comes true!
To end this post, I want to share an optimist's cartoon that I saw on the net while researching on this topic

unlock blackberry phone Steps

How to unlock blackberry phone steps
Step #1: Find the IMEI number of your mobile phone. This can be done by typing *#06# on the key pad

blackberry unlock1Step #2: Go to the below website: The best part about using is that they are the cheapest amongst all others on the internet. The cost for my blackberry was just $9.99 which is pretty cheap compared to what the local unlock-wallas ask for. Here you will see a form where you have to enter the following details:

* Select the country and carrier database from the drop down list

* Select the right carrier/provider of your mobile

* Select the right blackberry model

* Enter the IMEI number – I was a little apprehensive about giving out the IMEI number- but now I know it was completely safe to do so.

Step #3: Click on Add to Cart

Step #4: You can pay through PayPal or through Google checkout

You will get a confirmation upon payment along with an invoice number and you will also get an email confirmation. You will also receive a user name and password along with the link where you can check the code. Follow the instructions in the email. This e-mail will be where you will also get the unlock code.

Then comes the waiting part. Since this was an online transaction and as there was no contact number available on the website, the waiting part was a bit scary I must admit. They say that codes are available in 2-4 hours time, but it took 8 hours in my case. So don’t panic if you don’t see the code in you inbox within 4 or 6 hours.

Once you get the code, you will have to do 2 simple steps to unlock the phone:

Step #5: Remove the old SIM card from the blackberry and power it on (You can either have the new SIM card inserted or you can do this with no SIM in the phone – that makes no difference)blackberry unlock2

Step #6: Go to Options –> Advanced Options –> SIM Card. Now enter the following in the keypad: meppd

You will see that the Network option shows “Active”. This means that the phone is locked to the network of the provider

Step #7: Now enter the following on your keypad: mepp alt2 without any space between them.

blackberry unlock3Step #8: You will see “Enter Network MEP Code (256 left)” This number 256 is the number of attempts for you to enter the MEP Code. You are lucky if you have these many attempts left. But if you exhaust all of those attempts, the phone gets hard locked to the carrier and there will the nothing you can do to unlock the phone.

Step #9: Enter the unlock code that you received in the email. This will unlock the phone and you will now see that the Network also shows “Disabled”. This is perfectly alright, it just means your phone is no longer tied to the carrier

blackberry unlock4

Step#10: If you had not inserted the new SIM card earlier, do it now. Usually the right carrier gets selected automatically. If it does not go to Options—> Mobile Network and search for available network and choose the right carrier from among the list.

Now you will have an unlocked Blackberry!!

Did this help you? Have you unlocked through any other better way? Do share your thoughts!

Iphone vs Android comparision differences

android vs iphoneIphone vs Android comparisions differences




Battery: Removable and Replaceable
Battery replacements easily available in the market and if you are always on the move, you might as well have an additional charged up battery which can help your phone stay alive without waiting to charge
No replacement battery. In fact you cannot even see the battery in this cased smart phone. Any battery issue, you’ll have to send it to Apple and hope that Steve sends it back to you in one piece Android
Apps: This seems to be the major hit among all smart phone users. Android has about 70,000 apps currently iPhone boasts over 230,000 apps and is growing.. iPhone
Jailbreak: Many Android OS comes with an option to Jailbreak it from its service provider – which is a bliss to foreigners in US. The can take the phone to their home country and switch to a different SP without the hassles of jail breaking on their own iPhone does not have this feature when you buy it. Jail breaking needs to be done at our own risk and I have heard of many cases where the OS simply didn’t wake up after jailbreak. So its pretty scary business Android
Notifications: System wide notification (non-modal) and other application notifications (like a new mail / new tweet / new SMS) in cascade windows which can be pulled down to see details. Push notifications and Individual notifications on updates Android
Internal Memory: Limited internal memory. This is a big headache because apart from photos and media content, the default memory is the already limited internal memory. Lots of apps in the internal memory will eventually make your phone less ‘smart’ Good internal memory and you have choice of different internal memory sizes iPhone
External Memory: Yes. External SD card can be inserted to store photos, media, etc. But from what I have gathered, there has been many reports of corrupted SD card and loss of data / photo / media No external expandable memory. But no complaints here because the internal memory by itself is huge and good enough. I have not had a single occasion of data / photo loss. iPhone
Dictionary: Google Voice integration and user editable dictionary. Which means more flexibility and ease of use Artificial Intelligence type dictionary. iPhone learns as you type. So if you have the habit of typing a wrong spelling often, iPhone will learn that word and it is ‘almost’ reset of dictionary to make iPhone forget it. My common mistake is ‘habe’ instead of have and it kills to see that iPhone accepts that! Android
Mail App: Separate Apps for Gmail and other mail. Other mail app is definitely given the second-class treatment. There is limited options with mail editing and other regular stuff with the client mail application. No complaints with respect to Gmail app Single e-mail app and I must say an efficient one. iPhone
Aesthetics: Visually crippled non-Google apps. The icons seem to be poorly drawn / designed. Its looking unprofessional in many cases (3rd party apps) Every single application – the $99 app or the free one developed by a small co, all of them looks aesthetically rich and has appealing icons and appearance . For some one like me that first appearance plays 90% role in deciding if I want that app or not iPhone
File Transfer / Sync: Android has the ‘plug and transfer’ feature by which you can transfer files between Android phone and your laptop just as if it were an external storage device iTunes sync model – just like iPods. This means having a separate sync folder in your laptop and transferring media content to that folder before starting up the sync. Android
Hardware Design / Buttons: If you have an android mobile and have been using it for sometime, you probably have experienced this. The menu and back buttons doesn’t always do the same thing. Their functionalities vary for different apps. Also there is that useless trackball which does mostly nothing as of now One button – clear function. Menu and back always mean what they imply :) iPhone
Text Editing: Inconsistent text editing options again varying based on the app Text editing operations (cut,copy and paste) act the same irrespective of the app. I agree Apple has a lot of scope for improvement here.. but still iPhone
Charger: Micro USB charger which is something that is readily available in the market. Any Micro USB wire will do :) Apple charger – though it is available in the market in abundance, I hate to be dependent only on Stevie for charging the phone Android
OS Upgrade: Non-upgradable OS iPhone can support at least one major OS Update before Apple launches a non-compatible or higher configuration OS. iPhone

Apart from these, there are some common features that work good in both iPhone and Android. They are:

1. Auto suggestion by Google for search – complete as you type option

2. Back ground Apps and Multitasking

3. Google Calendar sync -

For iPhone, configure Google Exchange server in mail

For Androids, login to your Google account to sync

4. Bookmarking Sync -

iPhone - Safari bookmark sync option over MobileMe

Android – Google chrome bookmark sync

These are the facts that I have gathered. Do you think I have missed mentioning any feature of importance or I’m wrong anywhere or if any of the feature has now been made available in iPhone or android. Please drop me a note in comments. I’ll be happy to learn and correct mistakes if any.

call by reference means?

What is meant by ‘call by reference’?
In ‘call by reference’ method of calling functions, the called function declares a reference for the passed structure and refers to the original structure elements through its reference.

call by value means?

What is meant by ‘call by value’?
In C++, structures can be passed to functions by two methods namely ‘by value’ and ‘by reference’. In ‘call by value’ method, the called function copies the passed structure on to its own work copy; the original structure then remains unaffected.

Advantages of object oriented programming?

List the advantages of object oriented programming?
Object oriented programming has many advantages:

  • Re-usability of code.
  • Ease of comprehension.
  • Ease of fabrication and maintenance.
  • Easy redesign and extension.

What is an object?

What is an object?
An object is an identifiable entity with some characteristics and behavior. It represents an entity that can store data and its associated functions.

What is a class?

What is a class?
A class is a group of objects, i.e. data members or member-functions that share common properties and relationships. It represents a group of similar objects.

Element inserted in an array list?

Where can an element are inserted in an array list?
Insertion into an array list is possible in two ways:

  • Insertion at the beginning.
  • Insertion at the end.
  • Insertion in between.

Searching in array list carried out?

How is searching in an array list carried out?
For searching an element in an array list, first we traverse the array list and with traversing, we compare each element of array with the given element.

Operations performed on C++ lists?

What are the operations performed on C++ lists?
The operations that can be performed on lists are insertion, deletion, traversal and search.

What is nested loop in C?

What is a nested loop in C?
A nested loop in C is a loop within another loop. Nested loops find wide applications in C as well as C++ programs.

Size of the void pointer in C?

What is the size of the void pointer in C?
The size of void pointer in C is two bytes.