What is a null pointer?
There are times when it’s necessary to have a pointer that doesn’t
point to anything. The macro NULL, defined in , has a value that’s
guaranteed to be different from any valid pointer. NULL is a literal zero,
possibly cast to void* or char*. Some people, notably C++
programmers, prefer to use 0 rather than NULL.
The null pointer is used in three ways:
1) To stop indirection in a recursive data structure
2) As an error value
3) As a sentinel value