Assume for a moment that the earth is a perfectly uniform sphere of radius 6400 km. Suppose a thread equal to the length of the circumference of the earth was placed along the equator, and drawn to a tight fit.
Now suppose that the length of the thread is increased by 12 cm, and that it is pulled away uniformly in all directions.
By how many cm. will the thread be separated from the earth's surface?
The cicumference of the earth is
= 2 * PI * r
= 2 * PI * 6400 km
= 2 * PI * 6400 * 1000 m
= 2 * PI * 6400 * 1000 * 100 cm
= 1280000000 * PI cm
where r = radius of the earth, PI = 3.141592654
Hence, the length of the thread is = 1280000000 * PI cm
Now length of the thread is increasd by 12 cm. So the new length is = (1280000000 * PI) + 12 cm
This thread will make one concentric circle with the earth which is slightly away from the earth. The circumfernce of that circle is nothing but (1280000000 * PI) + 12 cm
Assume that radius of the outer circle is R cm
2 * PI * R = (1280000000 * PI) + 12 cm
Solving above equation, R = 640000001.908 cm
Radius of the earth is r = 640000000 cm
Hence, the thread will be separatedfrom the earth by
= R - r cm
= 640000001.908 - 640000000
= 1.908 cm