An Android layout is a class that handles arranging the way its children appear on the screen. Anything that is a View (or inherits from View) can be a child of a layout. All of the layouts inherit from ViewGroup (which inherits from View) so you can nest layouts. You could also create your own custom layout by making a class that inherits from ViewGroup.
The standard Layouts are:
Part 2 Explains the Layouts in detail